In addition it is relatively straightforward to sequence complete mitochondrial genomes from highly divergent avian species using conserved primers or high-throughput sequencing. J We find crown group Passeriformes began diverging in the early Paleocene, with major expansion of the speciose oscine lineages during the Oligocene. If this is indeed the case, then late Oligocene fossil oscines from Europe (fig. The Northern or Common Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) belongs to the cardinal family (Cardinalidae) of passerines. Christidis 2014), and if they were then they would need to have an extended hidden fossil record (Mayr 2013). They also used two additional fossil calibrations. A passerine /ˈpæsəraɪn/ is any bird of the order Passeriformes , which includes more than half of all bird species. We obtained DNA sequence data from the nuclear c–myc and RAG–1 genes of the major passerine groups and here we demonstrate that the endemic New Zealand wrens (Acanthisittidae) are the sister taxon to all other extant passerines, supporting a Gondwanan origin and early radiation of passerines. 2011). 2013; Mayr 2013; Jarvis et al. Ohlson M et al. The root prior had a normal distribution with mean 70 Ma, SD 9 Ma. capensis (piopio) shows significant differences to a number of other published Turn. . 2007). . Its closest relatives include Australiaâs little eagle Aquila morphnoides), whichÂ weighs just 1 kilogram. . WP Clarke Harlid 2008), and behavior and plumage in birds of paradise (Cracraft and Feinstein 2000). M Tennyson Our finding of approximately 15 Ma for the split of Epithanura and Prosthemadera is a similar timeframe to Joseph et al. 2012). The 14 New Zealand native species are in bold. Bowie Deiner Hugueney P Passerines are small to medium-sized land birds, ranging from about 7.5 to about 117 cm (3 to 46 inches) in overall length. Weighing 12 kilograms, it had a 3-metre wing span. J We report 14 new oscine mitochondrial genomes, including one extinct species and at least one representative from all extant New Zealand families. Origin of major passerine clades and New Zealand endemic lineages, as summarized from the BEAST analysis. The large diversity within passerine families means molecular studies often find paraphyly and overturn previous taxonomic classifications (e.g., Moyle et al. The results of Schweizer et al. The complete genome of Turn. Fabre However, given the agreement here from intron, exon, and mitochondrial data, we suggest these “basal passerids” should be included within the Passerida; this would simplify the formal classification of oscines. De novo assembly of contigs from the paired reads run individually or indexed used Velvet v1.1.06 (Zerbino and Birney 2008) with a K-mer sweep to identify the highest N50 for each species (typically around k = 65). . Drummond The cirl bunting is native to southern Europe, North Africa and Turkey, but its hold there is tenuous, so the small New Zealand population is significant. carunculatus) is sister to the core Corvoidea. JA (2011) were slightly older than those of Pratt et al. et al. C MA To the Editor: The recent finding of a previously unrecorded Salmonella strain in an endangered New Zealand passerine (the hihi, Notiomystis cincta; ) offers the rare opportunity to observe the initial arrival and pathology of an epizootic and to determine its population-level effect.Over 8 days in February 2006, 6 freshly dead hihi were discovered in a free-living island population. The sometimes-used molecular clock rate of 2% per site per million years is not recommended for use in passerines (Nabholz et al. About half the worldâs bird species belong to one order, Passeriformes. L Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. New Zealand has 49 native passerine species, with nine found only on outer islands. We find Sylvioidea to diverge first, in agreement with some nuclear and mitochondrial studies (e.g., Barker et al. EA KA . Mayr GL et al. Boles Simpson Data deposition: This project has been deposited at GenBank under the accession numbers KC545397-KC545409, KT894672. 2007), and we expect that to be the case here also. Desjardins Sister to all passerines is the small clade of New Zealand (NZ) wrens (Acanthisittidae). Home >> Birds of New Zealand. In passerine birds, members of the genus Isospora are most common. S Researchers need to actively check (as we do), using PCR or high throughput data, for “out of order” gene arrangements (such as the CR before tRNA Thr or tRNA Pro) and signs such as increased read coverage depth between cytb and 12S. SJ . 2006), which are both relatively slowly evolving lineages, and not closely related to passerines. Search for other works by this author on: Resolving deep lineage divergences in core corvoid passerine birds supports a proto-Papuan island origin, Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Mohoua, endemic hosts of New Zealand’s obligate brood parasitic long-tailed cuckoo (Eudynamys taitensis), Mitogenomic data resolve basal relationships among passeriform and passeridan birds, A phylogenetic hypothesis for passerine birds: taxonomic and biogeographic implications of an analysis of nuclear DNA sequence data, Phylogeny and diversification of the largest avian radiation, Paleontological evidence to date the tree of life, Fossil songbirds (Passeriformes) from the early Eocene of Australia, Reconstructing past species assemblages reveals the changing patterns and drivers of extinction through time, Strong mitochondrial DNA support for a Cretaceous origin of modern avian lineages, Were bowerbirds part of the New Zealand fauna? DNA extraction from a toepad of the extinct Turnagra capensis (piopio) was performed using strict ancient DNA procedures at the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, University of Adelaide, South Australia. et al. TH PCJ et al. Some came via New Caledonia. To this end we present complete mitochondrial genomes representing all families of New Zealand passerines in a phylogenetic framework of over 100 passerine species. young) minimum bounds with no maximum. Nabholz NE DNA was extracted from blood or tissue using Roche High Pure PCR template preparation kit (Roche Applied Science, Mannheim, Germany) following the manufacturers’ instructions. Wang Phillips Douzery They include: All of these except the fantail have been in New Zealand long enough to evolve quite differently from their Australian ancestors â the weka and takahÄ becoming flightless. A few species came from other places, and the origins of others remain unclear. 1 and Irestedt and Ohlson 2008). Nabholz Independent runs were checked for convergence, and trace files analyzed using Tracer (Rambaut and Drummond 2003) to ensure effective sample size (ESS) values greater than 200. Jonet et al. Kerry-Jayne Wilson, 'Land birds â overview - Land bird groups and their origins', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/land-birds-overview/page-2 (accessed 13 December 2020), Story by Kerry-Jayne Wilson, published 24 Sep 2007, reviewed & revised 20 Apr 2015. 2011; Kennedy et al. Xie 2008; Pacheco et al. 2020-03-22. M S3, Supplementary Material online). Multiple genomes were manually aligned and checked in Geneious 6.1.7, at the amino acid level for protein-coding genes, and based on stem and loop secondary structure for RNA genes (Gutell et al. Sida 1 Nr Vetenskapligt namn Engelskt namn Svenskt namn (noter) 4592 PASSERIFORMES PASSERINES TÄTTINGAR 4593 Acanthisittidae New Zealand Wrens Klippsmygar 4594 Acanthisitta chloris Rifleman klättersmyg 4595 Xenicus longipes Bushwren buskklippsmyg † 4596 Xenicus gilviventris New Zealand Rockwren bergklippsmyg (2011) were very similar with all calibration options. All genomes were checked to confirm protein regions translated and RNA stem loop structures matched appropriately. Eighty-five of New Zealandâs 91 species of native land birds are endemic (they occur nowhere else). 2012). Age of New Zealand Passerines. 2002, 2004; Ericson et al. All ML and Bayesian analyses resulted in congruent phylogenies with the majority of branches having high bootstrap and Bayesian posterior probability support (fig. Christidis For comparison with figure 2, the Meliphagoidea are basal oscines excluding Menura novaehollandiae, and Australasian robins are basal Passerida excluding Notiomystis and Philesturnus.1Note that for lineages where there is only one sampled taxon, the circle represents the time of clade divergence not the extant radiation. 2007) also found in many other Sylvioidea. Kimball This calibration used a mean of 66 Ma (SD 3.06) with normal distribution. Over the millennia, land bird species arrived from Australia from time to time, carried by strong westerly winds. C The majority of taxa are grouped as expected based on previous studies and taxonomic classification. . All passerines excluding Ac. US Trees were viewed using Figtree v1.4 (http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/figtree/ [accessed June 2015]). 2009). 2010), and the timescale is in millions of years. Lambert 3), with oscines and suboscines diverging only a (geologically) short time later (fig. 2012) with the data set partitioned as above. FK Native passerines include some of the world’s oldest – the rifleman and rock wren (Acanthisittidae family), and the wattlebirds (Callaeidae family). Only 91 of New Zealandâs 252 native birds are land birds. Both fossil and molecular evidence suggests Neoaves is more likely to have radiated in the late Cretaceous (Ho and Phillips 2009; Jetz et al. Barrowclough et al. New Zealandâs recently extinct Haastâs eagle was the worldâs largest eagle. 2013; Aidala et al. It is surprising to note that all published genomes from Passeroidea and Muscicapoidea, except our thrush (T. philomelos), have only one CR. Many of New Zealand's endemic passerines fall within the deeper branches of the passerine radiation, and a well resolved phylogeny for the modern New Zealand element in the deeper branches of the oscine lineage will help us understand both oscine and passerine biogeography. Ericson . 2005) and penguins (Slack et al. US Soft maximum bounds on most calibrations of 110 Ma. These are passerines (sometimes called the perching birds), and include sparrows and blackbirds. Data were analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML) methods implemented in RAxML (Stamatakis et al. . Rambaut Pu = Banded as nestling (Pullus) J = Bird in Juvenile plumage 1 = Bird in first year of life 1+ = Bird in first year or older 2 = Bird in second year 2+ = Bird in second year or older Then 3, 3+ etc. Additionally, their separation at infraordinal level makes the group one of the most significant in the New Zealand avifauna as well as being one of the most genetically isolated bird assemblages in the world. The full data set is 13,837 bp long and is separated into five partitions: three codon positions, and RNA stems and loops. The resulting reads were trimmed of any 3′-adapter sequence using cutadapt v1.1 (Martin 2011) and de novo assembled using ABySS v1.3.0 (Simpson et al. Robertson Gutell P 2013], and retrotransposon data [Suh et al. As has been seen in other CR gene duplications, the duplicated segments are nearly identical (e.g., Gibb et al. et al. 2002). Pratt Genetic monogamy in two long-lived New Zealand passerines Sabrina S. Taylor, Sanne Boessenkool and Ian G. Jamieson S. S. Taylor, S. Boessenkool and I. G. Jamieson (correspondence), Dept. Support for the arrangement is still weak and the internodes are short, however, it is “locally stable” (Cooper and Penny 1997) in that the alternate arrangements are only one step away. 2012). Irestedt What we do know about the modern diversity within lineages is that it is very shallow—for example, the NZ Meliphagidae, Pr. C Callaeidae: New Zealand wattlebirds; Stitchbirds; Cnemophilidae: satinbirds; Neosittidae: sittellas; Vireonidae: vireos The extant core Corvoidea also began radiating around 28 Ma. Land birds are less likely to fly long distances across water than the other groups. 1.). The 17 altricial non-passerine species belong to seven orders and eight families all of which also occur in Australia. Nucleotide partitions used an estimated GTR + I + G model with the at-gc scale operators and delta exchange removed for the RY coded partition. Biogeographic hypotheses regarding the worldwide distribution of passerines often begin by assuming the isolation of the NZ wrens on the Zealandian landmass since it rifted from Australia approximately 82 Ma (Barker et al. 2). The different results seen with some intron, exon, and mitochondrial data highlights the danger of simply combining different data sets without first checking for congruence between data sets. Chains were sampled every 5000th generation after removing a burnin of 10%. Penny JT Westerman The oldest truly globally successful group of passerines, they include among them what may well be the most intelligent and the most spectacular of the order. PGP et al. There has even been debate over the origin of the kiwi. et al. to all other passerines. Magnetic bead size selection criteria were relaxed to capture a wider range of DNA fragments. Jarvis Penny et al. All node dates compared between the two trees fall within the 95% posterior probability intervals of the two trees, and we find these results very comparable. The recent work of Jarvis et al. 2006). Springer MG . Cooke et al. Birds NZ EO . Morgan-Richards Few countries have such a high number of endemic families or orders. Kimball DT JF These surprisingly young divergence times for passerines will require further investigation. carunculatus sequences (both Callaeidae). Two independent chains were run for 26,700 iterations and checked for convergence in likelihood and model parameters (tracecomp subprogram) and clade posterior probability (bpcomp subprogram). Clarke Similar ages from different methods help increase our confidence in our findings. This is in agreement with our timescale of a radiation of the modern passerid lineages beginning in the late Oligocene (22–28 Ma). . BEAST and PhyloBayes analyses show Turnagra plus Oriolus as the deepest branch (fig. GF The surprisingly young passerine split requires further investigation. Branch thickness indicates ML bootstrap support, and the timescale is in millions of years. . Ericson Three new species of Myrsidea (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from New Zealand passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) Zootaxa. However, it was possible to identify almost all of the mitochondrial contigs by simply altering the script used to separate contigs so that it called Exonerate (v. 2.2.0, Slater and Birney 2005) with a score threshold of 150. . . It is important to have agreement between independent lines of evidence such as mitochondrial, nuclear, and morphological data sets. The two dating analyses resulted in trees with the same topology, as expected (fig. et al. With no land mammals apart from bats, and no predatory snakes, the birds could evolve in unique ways. (2009), and unsurprisingly, the resultant tree also has a deeper root node. . 2012), even though this date (82 Ma) significantly predates many modern estimations of the radiation of the wider Neoaves group (Neoaves contains the majority of modern bird species). ML support for the two configurations is split around 50% for each topology (fig. Generated by high throughput sequencing, our Turnagra mitochondrial genome has an average coverage of 171× (SD of 36×) with no ambiguous regions, giving us high confidence in the accuracy of the full sequence (supplementary table S2, Supplementary Material online). Both species showed similar demographic trajectories throughout the Pleistocene. . Ricklefs Zerbino In 2015 DNA research showed that the kiwi's closest relative was the extinct giant elephant bird, Mullerornis agilis, from Madagascar. Commercial re-use may be allowed on request. E Conservation status: Extinct Acanthisittidae, Traversia, Bush birds, Endemic birds, Extinct birds, Extinct since European contact, Extinct since human contact, Flightless birds, Flightless birds - extinct since human contact, Forest birds, New Zealand wrens, Passerines, Songbirds 2 and 3). . Barker Toy et al. All other parameters were unaltered. Colors are the same as in figure 1 for reference. E M 2; supplementary figs. Aggerbeck Other calibrations must be found to date passerine evolution. JP SYW This is contra to the results of studies including the Rag-1 gene (e.g., Barker et al. Sometimes known as perching birds or songbirds, passerines are distinguished from other orders of birds by the arrangement of their toes (three pointing forward and one back), which facilitates perching. Gaps, ambiguous sites adjacent to gaps, the ND6 (light-strand encoded), noncoding regions, and stop codons (often incomplete in the DNA sequence), were excluded from the alignment. High rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP) can be relatively common in passerines whereas low rates or absence of EPP are often associated with taxa that are long-lived and exhibit obligatory paternal care. N 2008; Barker 2014), although alternative arrangements are also seen (e.g., Hackett et al. We were, however, surprised by the placement of Pseudopodoces humilis (Tibetan ground-jay). et al. Ericson H MJ DNA from A. melanura and M. novaeseelandiae was of insufficient quantity to complete these genomes, resulting in partial genomes for these two species. F A L 3 and Mayr 2013). Many of New Zealand’s endemic passerines fall within the deeper branches of the passerine radiation, and a well resolved phylogeny for the modern New Zealand element in the deeper branches of the oscine lineage will help us understand both oscine and passerine biogeography. 2011; Gibb et al. Hoover The insert ML tree shows relative branch length, and a full size version is shown in supplementary figure S2, Supplementary Material online. . Traversia lyalli. The DNA-DNA hybridization studies of Sibley and Ahlquist (1990) found oscines formed two sister groups (suborders Passerida and Corvida) that appeared broadly European and Australasian in composition. Here, we provide a well-resolved mitochondrial phylogeny to complement existing molecular and morphological data sets. 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